1-narrative structure: a novel /short story -may be composed using different techniques a: retrospection thewriter relies on the narrator or a character’s manipulation of memory something reminds of past evets,and like in cinema, the narrative shifts from present to past to future and vice-versa B: projection usually a technique that we see most in science fiction where is a future projected which is mostly imaginary,yet presented whith a sense of reality so that the narrative is perceived as almost real. sometimes, projection may incorporate elements of past,as if the characters/idealizer or try to fix or re-invent a past event or history C:different time frames and structure the narrative moves from present to past or future mostly as areflection of the character/s inner emotional or psychological reflections D -straight forward the narration moves from a point of departure to a conclusion or ends the narrative serves to tell a story that unfold it has a clear beginning a middle which develops on issues and provide for conflict resolution and an end the narrative provides the reader with a resolution how the characters solve their conflicts the story may end happily or tragically sometimes the final resolution is left open to the readers interpretation a narrative or poem relieson what we call a narrative or poetic voice: this is the reading voice or voices through which we as readers become familiar with the story that istold to us if the narration is impersonal we call it third person omniscient narrator usually relies on a third person’s narrative mostly a voice that connects the events or the poetic expression but is not necessarily a main actor or character in the story being told first person narrator usually a main or secondary character that weaves the narrative and let us know his/hr opinions visions and feeling 2-characterization became alive in a novel or short story via description from a narrators perspective or from the perspective of other characters characters may be revealed by what other characters or narrator informsreaders about them however their intentions actions motivation and decisions became intrinsic to them a good reader learns to disassociate a characters a characters perspective of him /herself or others by weghting their actions rather than their self-perceptions 3-themes are the main ideas the messages that the auctorrs try to develop andwhich aare disquised in a plot ( the seuence of events the story being told) themes deal with why is the authors writing the story what messages are elaborated for the readers to uncover? is the authors writting for aspecific or a general audience? are this themes universal or are thet culturally specific? 5-cultural specifictcs what cultural elements are essential for the readers to be familiar with so they can fully understand the reading at hand? what funtion these culturalelements serve in the narrative do they become part of the narrative structure or the plot or are they intrinsic to characterization ? how is meaning related to these cultural specifics? how important are these culturalelements in the understanding of work at hand? 6- plot what happensin the story what are the most important episodes that move the charaters actions from a beginning to an end how are the events linked to each other do events happen as consequence to others are the interrelated in time and space (following a chronology) or are thoughts progressive in time or are the events narrated in retrospection? 7- imagery and symbolism how the auctors crfts the writting is the auctors using metaphors?similles?is there allegory? is the auctor relying in a language which is symbolic with references to the cultural background of the reader or language which is symbolic but self referents to the literary work at hand?these elements are particularly important in the analysis of poetry or of literature that is representative of particular literary movements such as symbolism or latin american modernismo
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