Exercise Questions 1. In the following examples, identify the independent and dependent variable(s):
(a) Two groups of children were given different types of physical fitness programsto determine whether the programs had an effect on their strength.
(b) A group of 100 heavy smokers was divided into five groups, and each groupparticipated in a different smoking-cessation program. After 6 months ofprogram participation, the number of cigarettes each participant smoked eachday was counted.
(c) A university professor was interested in determining the best way to teachintroductory psychology and ensure that his students would learn the material.
Exercise Questions 2. For the following situations name at least one independent variable (and the levels of that variable) and one dependent variable.
(a) A research project where the topic of interest is achievement.
(b) A research project where the topic of interest is voting preferences in thepresidential election.
(c) A research project where the topic is recovery rate in a drug and alcoholrehabilitation program.
Exercise Questions 5. Write the null and research hypotheses for the following description of a research study:
A group of middle-aged men was asked to complete a questionnaire on their attitudes toward work and family. Each of these men is married and has at least two children. Another group of men with no children also completed the same survey.
Exercise Questions 6. Write the null and a directional research hypothesis for the following description of a research study:
A pediatrician was comparing the effects of an early intervention program during children’s first 3 years of life and the impact that program might have on academic achievement on grade school competency tests.
Exercise Questions 13. Indicate which of the following are variables and which are constants:
(a) Lew’s hair color
(b) Age in years
(c) Number of windows in your residence
(d) Color of the late-model car parked in front of the building
(e) What time it is right now
(f) Number of possible correct answers on this week’s quiz
(g) Number of signers of the Declaration of Independence
(h) Name of the fifth girl in the third row
(i) Today’s date
(j) Number of words remembered on a memory test
Exercise Questions 16. A researcher from Louisiana hypothesizes that people living out in the country display fewer avoidance strategies under stress than do people living in large cities. To test his hypothesis, he completes research with a group of participants from New Orleans and a group of participants from Church Point, Louisiana, and finds support for his hypothesis. However, he later learns that most of the participants from New Orleans were there during Hurricane Katrina. In this example, the experience of Hurricane Katrina is considered what type of variable?
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