Ethnicity, Citizenship, Nationhood and Conflict 1. What is the RELATIONSHIP between citizenship and nationality?2. Why is the immigrant who would be a citizen in France defined as a foreigner in Germany?.You should respond to this:There are three major conceptualizations regarding the linkage between citizenship and nationality, while delineating the relationship between nationalism and citizenship. It seems to me that these linkages were required of state-building. The empirical reality has changed substantially due to the emergence of the NEW World, dislocation of populations wrought by socialist states, the failure of a homogenizations project initiated by nation-states and the ongoing process of inter-state migration accelerated by modernization and abetted by globalization.The English “nation” was initially conceptualized as a collective of sovereign individuals; this later gave birth to the individualistic libertarian concept of the state. If the individuals constitute the units of the nation, citizenship and nationality could be bifurcated.Great Britain was thus conceived as a collectively of citizens drawn from different nations – England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. This conception was to its states building. The persisting ambivalence in characterizing both Great Britain and its units as “nations” even among scholars, while in reality the former is a multi-national state and latter are nations. In contrast to this the conceptualization that VIEWS a nation as distinct people, the collectivist-ethnic nation. In this mode conceptualization citizenship and nationality become fused,giving birth to the collectivist-authoritarian state. The typical examples of this concept of nation are the German and Italian nation-states.The two types of conceptualizations have given birth to two different criteria of memberships in the national collectivity. Where nationality and citizenship are bifurcated, the former, at least in principle, is civic, that is OPEN and VOLUNTARISTIC; it can be acquired. In contrast, where the two are fused MEMBERSHIP in the nation is inherent, that is nationality has nothing to do with the individual will and citizenship is inherited. One implies to the other. The collectivist nation and the multi-national state are patently contradictory to each other.The third mode of conceptualization is a mutation of the two is exemplified by the French. In France an individual can acquire nationality, that is, citizenship, through a process of Frenchification – learning the French language, receiving a French EDUCATION and internalizing French culture, irrespective of race and religion. This is principle gives birth to a civic-collectivistic state fostering a community of citizens. However, there is a hierarchy of citizens and nationals even HERE; the white; Catholic;French-speaking citizens from France at the top, and the Frenchified black Muslim ‘immigrant’ citizen at the bottom.2. Through comparative studies of France and Germany, it manifests the sharp contrast between policies and politics of citizenship of the two leading nation-states of continental Europe. While birth and subsequent residence in France is AUTOMATICALLY transform second-generation immigrants into citizens, birth in Germany has no bearing on German citizenship. The French citizenry is defined expansively, as a territorial community, while the German citizenry restrictively, as a community of descent. Naturalization policies, moreover, are more liberal in France than in Germany, and naturalization rates are five times higher. It demonstrates the expansive French politics of citizenship vis-a-vis immigrants reflects as state-centered, assimilationist, essentially political national self-understanding, while the restrictive German politics reflects an ethno-cultural understanding of nationhoods as prior to an independent of the state.
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