There are three major conceptualizations regarding the linkage between citizenship and nationality, while delineating the relationship between nationalism and citizenship. It seems to me that these linkages were required of state-building. The empirical reality has changed substantially due to the emergence of the NEW World, dislocation of populations wrought by socialist states, the failure of a homogenizations project initiated by nation-states and the ongoing process of inter-state migration accelerated by modernization and abetted by globalization.
The English “nation” was initially conceptualized as a collective of sovereign individuals; this later gave birth to the individualistic libertarian concept of the state. If the individuals constitute the units of the nation, citizenship and nationality could be bifurcated. Great Britain was thus conceived as a collectively of citizens drawn from different nations – England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. This conception was to its states building. The persisting ambivalence in characterizing both Great Britain and its units as “nations” even among scholars, while in reality the former is a multi-national state and latter are nations. In contrast to this the conceptualization that VIEWSa nation as distinct people, the collectivist-ethnic nation. In this mode conceptualization citizenship and nationality become fused, giving birth to the collectivist-authoritarian state. The typical examples of this concept of nation are the German and Italian nation-states.
The two types of conceptualizations have given birth to two different criteria of memberships in the national collectivity. Where nationality and citizenship are bifurcated, the former, at least in principle, is civic, that is OPEN and VOLUNTARISTIC; it can be acquired. In contrast, where the two are fused MEMBERSHIP in the nation is inherent, that is nationality has nothing to do with the individual will and citizenship is inherited. One implies to the other. The collectivist nation and the multi-national state are patently contradictory to each other.
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